Rights of Individuals: Civil and Political
Dignity, Equality, and Non-Discrimination
  Right to Protection of Inherent Dignity Equality, Equal Protection of the Law Non-Discrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, Sex, Religion, Ethnic Origin (etc.)
  South African Constitution §10.  For a brief analysis of the fundamental importance of dignity within South African constitutional jurisprudence, see de Waal et al.,at 216-22. §9.  For an analysis of the application of this Section by the courts, see de Waal et al., at 192-212. §9(3) - 9(5) discrimination by the state or individuals, on the basis of the grounds listed above, plus gender, pregnancy, marital status, sexual orientation, age, disability, social origin, language, and culture),  establishing a Commission for Gender Equality.
French 1958 Constitution The Conseil Constitutionnel has found that the right to "respect of all human beings from the beginning of life" is a "fundamental principle" of constitutional status, pursuant to ¶1 of the Preamble to the 1946 Constitution. See Bell, at 71. Art. 1 (equality of all citizens before the law without distinction as to race, religion, or belief).  See also 1946 Constitution Preamble ¶3 (equality of the sexes). For an extended discussion of this topic, see Bell, at 199-26. See also Penal Code Articles 225-1 et seq. (criminal penalties for discrimination on the basis of a long list of grounds).
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (no provision) §15, subject to limitation under §33 by express act of Parliament or a provincial legislature. §15 "equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination, and in particular, without discrimination based on" the grounds listed above, plus national origin, age, and mental or physical disability.  Also, §28 provides that the guarantees of the Charter apply equally to "male and female persons."
Constitution of Argentina (no provision) Art. 16 (all inhabitants of Argentina are equal before the law). See also Art. 75(23) (authorizing Congress to enact legislation upholding equality rights as embodied in human rights treaties); There is no explicit prohibition of discrimination based on language or religion. Art. 16 prohibits prerogatives of blood or birth. See also Art. 37, ¶2 (requiring legislation protecting equal opportunity of both genders to hold political positions), as modified by the Second Transitional Provision.
United States Constitution (no provision) 14th Amend. §1 ("No State shall … deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.)  The courts have built an elaborate collection of doctrines upon this clause, including Non- Discrimination as noted at right. Private discrimination and governmental discrimination on the basis of religion, social origin and birth are not prohibited by the Constitution.  A statute that intentionally discriminates on the other bases listed in the heading above is prohibited under the equal protection clause (cited at left), unless supported by sufficiently compelling governmental interests.  Scrutiny of such statutes is more strict for race, origin, and gender, and less strict for alienage and illegitimacy.
Constitution of India No general provision, but cf. Art. 17, Abolition of Untouchability. Art. 14 (equality before the law and equal protection of the laws), as limited by Art. 31C (see Tope, at 293-98).   For an extended essay on Art. 14, see Tope, at 62-80.

See also Art. 16(1) (equality of public employment), as limited by Art 16(3)-16(5).

Art. 15 (on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth), except under Arts. 15(3) and 15(4) (special provisions for women and children, and affirmative action).  Art. 15 applies to all state action, and to private action restricting access to public places and facilities.  See also Art. 17 (abolition of untouchability); and  Art. 16(2) (employment discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, and residence), as limited by Art 16(3)-16(5).  For an extended essay, see Tope, at 80-103.
Würzburg Key System Key 6111 Key 63 See Key 6334 (non-discrimination on the basis of legitimacy)
International Instruments
  Universal Declaration of Human Rights Art. 1 ("all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.")   See also Preamble, ¶¶ 1 and 5 Art. 6 (recognition as a person before the law), Art. 7 (equal protection). Art. 7 (right to equal protection against any discrimination), Art. 2 (no discrimination as to enjoyment of rights on the basis of the grounds listed above and also on the basis of language, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status).   See also Art. 25(2) (no discrimination based on legitimacy).
Int’l Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICCPR Art 16 (recognition as a person before the law). See also Preamble (noting the "inherent dignity" of "all members of the human family" and the "inherent dignity of the human person"). ICCPR Art. 2 (obligation of states to ensure the protection of rights without distinctions of any kind), Art. 26 ("All persons are equal before the law").  See also Art. 3 (equal application of rights to men and women). ICCPR Art. 26 (the law must prohibit discrimination and guarantee effective protection, on the basis of the grounds listed above, plus political or other opinion, national origin, property, or other status).

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