Application and Amendment of Constitutional Rights
Scope of Application of Constitutional Rights
  Scope of Protection of Natural and Juridical Persons Application to Limit Actions of State and Private Entities Aspirational and Preambular Provisions
  South African Constitution As for juridical persons, see §8(4) (application "to the extent required by the nature of" the right and the nature of the person).  Constitutional rights apply to all natural persons unless explicitly limited. See de Waal et al., at 28-32. §8(1)-(3):  the provisions of Ch. 2, the Bill of Rights, are binding upon (1) state entities, and (2) to natural or juridical persons "to the extent" they are "applicable," (3) subject to application and extension of Common Law principles. See de Waal et al., at 33-67. Preamble:  The 1996 Constitution is adopted, inter alia, to "establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights," in which "every citizen is equally protected by law."
French 1958 Constitution There is no provision on juridical persons.   As for natural persons, only citizens enjoy the full range and effect of constitutional rights, foreigners enjoy limited constitutional rights. See Bell, at 202-05. There are no explicit provisions.  The Conseil Constitutionnel applies constitutional norms to limit the scope of the Parliament’s legislative action.  See Bell, at 196-98.  The Conseil d’Etat holds the executive to the limitations of the Constitution, though it must follow the constitutional interpretations of the Conseil Constitutionnel. As explained in the description of the French 1958 Constitution, its brief Preamble has been given the effect of incorporating by reference all the rights guaranteed by the 1798 Declaration and the 1946 Constitution.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (no provision) §32 specifies the scope of application to state entities.  §52 proclaims the Charter a part of the Constitution of Canada, which is "the supreme law of Canada," and any inconsistent law is "of no force or effect."  For an extended discussion, see Macklem et al., at 207-46. The Preamble is very brief:   "Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of law."
Constitution of Argentina (no provision) Art. 31 contains a supremacy clause, making the Constitution and int’l treaties the supreme law of the Nation, binding upon the authorities of every Province. Preamble: "with the object of … ensuring justice, … promoting the general welfare, and securing the blessings of liberty to ourselves, to our posterity, and to all men in the world who wish to dwell on Argentine soil".
United States Constitution There is no provision on juridical persons.  As for natural persons, key rights-related provisions including the Bill of Rights (the first 10 Amendments), and the 14th Amend. due process and equal protection clauses, are phrased as applying to "all persons."  These rights therefore have been construed as offering substantial protections to non-citizens residing within the U.S. The Art. VI, §2 Supremacy Clause makes the Constitution the "supreme law of the land, and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby…" Preamble: "in order to ... establish justice ... promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity"
Constitution of India See Tope, at 43, for a discussion.  In summary, juridical persons enjoy all constitutional rights which in their nature may be reasonably so applied.  As for natural persons, certain rights are enjoyed by all persons subject to Indian jurisdiction, whether citizens or not.  Arts. 14, 18, 20-25, 27, 28, and 32.  Other rights are enjoyed only by Indian citizens, see, e.g., Arts. 15, 16, 19. Art. 12 provides that fundamental rights limit the actions of all central, State, and territorial government bodies and commercial entities. Tope, at 43-47.   Art. 13 prohibits state action that infringes upon any fundamental right.  This is limited by Art. 31C, under which legislation implementing a directive principle in Arts. 36-51 may violate the rights in Arts. 14 or 19.  The courts have read Art. 31C narrowly.  See Tope, at 293-98.   Note that certain acts of State legislatures may violate certain fundamental rights, pursuant to Art. 31B. See Tope, at 289-92. The Preamble mentions "justice, social, economic and political; liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; equality of status and of opportunity" as well as "fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual."  Preamble.
Würzburg Key System Key 6142 (applicability to juridical persons) (Key has not yet been developed) (Key has not yet been developed)
International Instruments
  Universal Declaration of Human Rights Art. 2 ("everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms" of the Universal Declaration).   Juridical persons are not mentioned. The Universal Declaration does not have any binding force of law.  Rather, the Preamble refers to it as "a common standard of achievement … to the end that every individual and every organ of society ... shall strive ... to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and ... to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance." Extensive provisions, beginning with "recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world."  See the Preamble.
Int’l Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Under ICCPR Art. 2, each State Party to the ICCPR must ensure to "all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction" the rights in the ICCPR.  There is no explicit mention of juridical persons. ICCPR Art. 2(1) (States must "respect and ensure" the rights in the ICCPR).  Under Art. 50, the provisions of the ICCPR apply to all political subdivisions of federal States. Substantial preambular provisions, beginning with the consideration that "recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world."

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