The New York Times v. Sullivan "Actual Malice" Rule
In New York Times v. Sullivan, supra, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the existing common law of defamation violated the guarantee of free speech under the First Amendment of the Constitution. It held that the citizen's right to criticize government officials is of such tremendous importance in a democratic society that it can only be accommodated through the tolerance of speech which may eventually be determined to contain falsehoods. The solution adopted was to do away with the common law presumptions of falsity and malice and place the onus on the plaintiff to prove that, at the time the defamatory statements were made, the defendant either knew them to be false or was reckless as to whether they were or not (122).
At the outset, it is important to understand the social and political context of the times which undoubtedly influenced the decision in New York Times v. Sullivan, supra. The impugned publication was an editorial advertisement, placed in the appellant's newspaper, entitled "Heed Their Rising Voices". It criticized the widespread segregation which continued to dominate life in the southern states in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Prominent and well respected individuals, including Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, lent their name to the advertisement. It communicated information, recited grievances, protested abuses and sought financial support. The group or movement sponsoring the advertisement was characterized by Brennan J. as one "whose existence and objectives are matters of the highest public interest and concern" (p. 266). Black J. described the controversy at the heart of the suit in the following terms at p. 294:
One of the acute and highly emotional issues in this country arises out of efforts of many people, even including some public officials, to continue state-commanded segregation of races in the public schools and other public places, despite our several holdings that such a state practice is forbidden by the
Fourteenth Amendment (123).
The advertisement did not mention by name the plaintiff, who was a white elected commissioner from Montgomery, Alabama. Only 35 copies of the edition of the New York Times which carried that advertisement were circulated in Montgomery, and only 394 were circulated in the entire state of Alabama. The trial took place in 1960, in a segregated court room in Montgomery, before a white judge and all-white jury (124).
The Supreme Court, in overturning the verdict, clearly perceived the libel action as a very serious attack not only on the freedom of the press but, more particularly, on those who favoured desegregation in the southern United States. It was concerned that such a large damage award could threaten the very existence of, in Black J.'s words, "an American press virile enough to publish unpopular views on public affairs and bold enough to criticize the conduct of public officials" (p. 294). This concern was intensified by the fact that a second libel verdict of $500,000 U.S. had already been awarded to another Montgomery commissioner against the New York Times. In addition, 11 other libel suits, arising out of the same advertisement, were pending against the newspaper (125).
Another motivating factor for this radical change to the common law was the American jurisprudence to the effect that the statements of public officials which came "within the outer perimeter of their duties" were privileged unless actual malice was proved. The rationale behind this privilege was that the threat of damage suits would "dampen the ardor of all but the most resolute, or the most irresponsible, in the unflinching discharge of their duties": Barr v. Matteo, 360 U.S. 564 (1959), at p. 571. The Supreme Court in the Sullivan decision held that analogous considerations supported the protection which it accorded to critics of the government (126).
(d)Critiques of the "Actual Malice" Rule
(i)Comments on the Decision in the United States
The "actual malice" rule has been severely criticized by American judges and academic writers. It has been suggested that the decision was overly influenced by the dramatic facts underlying the dispute and has not stood the test of time. See, for example, R. A. Epstein, "Was New York Times v. Sullivan Wrong?" (1986), 53 U. Chi. L. Rev. 782, at p. 787; Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. v. Greenmoss Builders, Inc., 472 U.S. 749 (1985), at p. 767. Commentators have pointed out that, far from being deterred by the decision, libel actions have, in the post-Sullivan era, increased in both number and size of awards. They have, in this way, mirrored the direction taken in other tort actions. See Epstein, supra; R. P. Bezanson, "Libel Law and the Realities of Litigation: Setting the Record Straight" (1985), 71 Iowa L. Rev. 226, at pp. 228-29. It has been said that the New York Times v. Sullivan, decision has put great pressure on the fact-finding process since courts are now required to make subjective determinations as to who is a public figure and what is a matter of legitimate public concern. See Christie, supra, at pp. 63-64.
128 Perhaps most importantly, it has been argued the decision has shifted the focus of defamation suits away from their original, essential purpose. Rather than deciding upon the truth of the impugned statement, courts in the U.S. now determine whether the defendant was negligent. Several unfortunate results flow from this shift in focus. First, it may deny the plaintiff the opportunity to establish the falsity of the defamatory statements and to determine the consequent reputational harm. This is particularly true in cases where the falsity is not seriously contested. See Bezanson, supra, at p. 227.
129 Second, it necessitates a detailed inquiry into matters of media procedure. This, in turn, increases the length of discoveries and of the trial which may actually increase, rather than decrease, the threat to speech interests. See D. A. Barrett, "Declaratory Judgments for Libel: A Better Alternative" (1986), 74 Cal. L. Rev. 847, at p. 855.
130 Third, it dramatically increases the cost of litigation. This will often leave a plaintiff who has limited funds without legal recourse. See P. N. Leval, "The No-Money, No-Fault Libel Suit: Keeping Sullivan in its Proper Place" (1988), 101 Harv. L. Rev. 1287, at p. 1288; A. Lewis, "New York Times v. Sullivan Reconsidered: Time to Return to `The Central Meaning of the First Amendment'" (1983), 83 Colum. L. Rev. 603; M. London, "The `Muzzled Media': Constitutional Crisis or Product Liability Scam?" in At What Price? Libel Law and Freedom of the Press (1993), at pp. 17-20.
131 Fourth, the fact that the dissemination of falsehoods is protected is said to exact a major social cost by deprecating truth in public discourse. See L. C. Bollinger, "The End of New York Times v Sullivan: Reflections on Masson v New Yorker Magazine",  Sup. Ct. Rev. 1, at p. 6; J. A. Barron, "Access to the Press -- A New First Amendment Right" (1966-67), 80 Harv. L. Rev. 1641, at pp. 1657-58.
132 A number of jurists in the United States have advocated a reconsideration of the New York Times v. Sullivan standard. These include one of the justices of the Supreme Court who participated in that decision. In Dun & Bradstreet, Inc., supra, White J. stated, in a minority concurring opinion with which Burger C.J. concurred on this point, that he had "become convinced that the Court struck an improvident balance in the New York Times case between the public's interest in being fully informed about public officials and public affairs and the competing interest of those who have been defamed in vindicating their reputation" (p. 767). He went on to state at pp. 767-69:
In a country like ours, where the people purport to be able to govern themselves through their elected representatives, adequate information about their government is of transcendent importance. That flow of intelligence deserves full First Amendment protection. Criticism and assessment of the performance of public officials and of government in general are not subject to penalties imposed by law. But these First Amendment values are not at all served by circulating false statements of fact about public officials. On the contrary, erroneous information frustrates these values. They are even more disserved when the statements falsely impugn the honesty of those men and women and hence lessen the confidence in government. As the Court said in Gertz: "(T)here is no constitutional value in false statements of fact. Neither the intentional lie nor the careless error materially advances society's interest in `uninhibited, robust, and wide-open' debate on public issues." . . . Yet in New York Times cases, the public official's complaint will be dismissed unless he alleges and makes out a jury case of a knowing or reckless falsehood. Absent such proof, there will be no jury verdict or judgment of any kind in his favor, even if the challenged publication is admittedly false. The lie will stand, and the public continue to be misinformed about public matters. . . . Furthermore, when the plaintiff loses, the jury will likely return a general verdict and there will be no judgment that the publication was false, even though it was without foundation in reality. The public is left to conclude that the challenged statement was true after all. Their only chance of being accurately informed is measured by the public official's ability himself to counter the lie, unaided by the courts. That is a decidedly weak reed to depend on for the vindication of First Amendment interests . . .
Also, by leaving the lie uncorrected, the New York Times rule plainly leaves the public official without a remedy for the damage to his reputation. Yet the Court has observed that the individual's right to the protection of his own good name is a basic consideration of our constitutional system, reflecting "`our basic concept of the essential dignity and worth of every human being -- a concept at the root of any decent system of ordered liberty.'" . . .
The New York Times rule thus countenances two evils: first, the stream of information about public officials and public affairs is polluted and often remains polluted by false information; and second, the reputation and professional life of the defeated plaintiff may be destroyed by falsehoods that might have been avoided with a reasonable effort to investigate the facts. In terms of the First Amendment and reputational interests at stake, these seem grossly perverse results.
133 In the subsequent case of Coughlin v. Westinghouse Broadcasting & Cable, Inc., 476 U.S. 1187 (1986), the majority of the United States Supreme Court refused to grant certiorari. Burger C.J. and Rehnquist J. dissented because of their view that the court should re-examine New York Times v. Sullivan, supra, and "give plenary attention to this important issue" (p. 1187).
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